Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the major airways into the lungs. It may be caused by a variety of bacteria and viruses. These viruses can be spread in the air when a person coughs. They also can be spread through physical contact, such as through unwashed hands.
Acute bronchitis can last from a few days to 10 days. But the cough that comes with acute bronchitis may last for several weeks after the infection has gone.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the sudden failure of the respiratory (breathing) system. It can develop in anyone over the age of 1 who is critically ill. A person with ARDS has rapid breathing, difficulty getting enough air into the lungs and low blood oxygen levels.
ARDS usually develops in people who are already very ill with another disease or who have major injuries. They are usually already in the hospital when they develop the ARDS.
Air you breathe in travels to the air sacs in your lungs. Small blood vessels run through the walls of the air sacs. Oxygen passes from the air sacs into the blood vessels and then into the bloodstream, which distributes the oxygen to all parts of the body. In ARDS, the lung's blood vessels leak more fluid than normal into the air sacs. This prevents the lungs from filling with air and moving enough oxygen into the bloodstream. The result is the body's organs don't get enough oxygen and they may shut down.
Asbestosis is a disease that involves scarring of lung tissue as a result of breathing in asbestos fibers. The disease causes the lung tissues and the lining of the chest wall to thicken and harden. The scarring makes it hard for you to breathe and for oxygen to get into the blood. The disease worsens slowly over time. In some people the disease causes no symptoms, while in others it can cause severe symptoms.
Asbestos was previously widely used as an insulator and fire retardant until it became known that its microscopic fibers cause disease, including cancer. Asbestos exposure occurred in industries including the asbestos mining and milling industries, construction, and fireproofing.
Today asbestos is a well-recognized health hazard, and is highly regulated by the government. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) established regulations dealing with asbestos exposure on the job, specifically in construction work, shipyards, and general industry that employers are required to follow.
Asthma is a chronic, or life long, disease that can be serious—even life threatening. There is no cure for asthma. The good news is that it can be managed so you can live a normal, healthy life. The more you can learn about asthma, the better you and your loved ones can manage living with this disease, making the most of every day, and maintaining the quality of life that is important to you.
Asthma is a lung disease that makes it harder to move air in and out of your lungs. There are three things that you should know about asthma:
1. Asthma is chronic. In other words, you live with it every day.
2. It can be serious – even life threatening.
3. There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed so you live a normal, healthy life.
When you breathe, air passes through your nose and down your throat into your lungs. Inside your lungs are branching tubes called airways. With asthma, the airways are often swollen and red (or inflamed). This makes them extra sensitive to things that you are exposed to in the environment every day or asthma “triggers”. A trigger could be a cold, the weather, or things in the environment, such as dust, chemicals, smoke and pet dander.
When someone with asthma breathes in a trigger, the insides of the airways make extra mucus and swell even more. This narrows the space for the air to move in and out of the lungs. The muscles that wrap around your airways can also tighten, making breathing even harder. When that happens, it’s called an asthma flare-up, asthma episode or asthma “attack”.
Asthma can start at any age. Sometimes, people have asthma when they are very young and as their lungs develop, the symptoms go away. There is a possibility that it will come back later in life. Sometimes, people get asthma for the first time when they are older.
- Acute Bronchitis
Bronchiectasis is an abnormal stretching and enlarging of the lungs' airways caused by mucus blockage. When the body cannot get rid of mucus, it becomes stuck and builds up in the airways. The blockage and accompanying infection cause inflammation, leading to the weakening and widening of the passages. The weakened passages can become scarred and deformed, allowing more mucus and bacteria to build up. This results in a cycle of infection and blocked airways.
Bronchiectasis can develop at any age. It begins most often in childhood, but symptoms may not appear until much later. Bronchiectasis can occur as part of a birth defect, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia or cystic fibrosis. It can develop after birth as a result of injury or other diseases, like tuberculosis, pneumonia and influenza. It also can be caused by a blockage in your airways due to a growth or something you inhaled as a child such as a piece of a toy or peanut.
Bronchiectasis cannot be cured. But with proper treatment most people with bronchiectasis can live a normal life. The sooner your bronchiectasis is detected and treated, the better the chance of preventing more damage to your lungs.
Bronchiolitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. It is most common in early infancy. It often occurs due to viral infections, over half of which are caused by the respiratory syncytial virus or RSV.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
Call your health care provider immediately, or go to the emergency room if your child with bronchiolitis:
- Develops a bluish color in the skin, nails, or lips
- Develops rapid, shallow breathing
- Has a cold that suddenly gets worse
- Has trouble breathing
- Flares nostrils or retracts chest muscles when trying to breathe
- Becomes lethargic
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a lung disease that is seen most often in babies who were born severely premature—more than 10 weeks before their due date. Babies with BPD have inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
About 5,000 to 10,000 babies born in the United States each year have BPD. More babies today have BPD than 30 years ago because more very premature babies survive.
- Burns (1st and 2nd Degree)
What is Byssinosis?
Byssinosis (brown lung disease) is a lung disease caused by exposure to dusts from cotton processing, hemp and flax. The small airways become blocked, severely harming lung function. In the United States, byssinosis is almost completely limited to workers who handle unprocessed cotton.
Bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the airways, or bronchial tubes. When your airways are inflamed and/or infected, less air is able to flow to and from the lungs and you cough up heavy mucus or phlegm. There are two types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. A cute bronchitis can accompany a cold and clears up after a week or two.
A person with chronic bronchitis has a mucus-producing cough most days of the month, three months of a year for two years in a row without other underlying disease to explain the cough. After a long period of irritation:
- Excess mucus is produced constantly
- The lining of the airways becomes thickened
- An irritating cough develops
- Air flow may be hampered
- The lungs become scarred
The airways then make an ideal breeding place for infections.
Chronic bronchitis doesn't strike suddenly. After a winter cold seems cured, you may continue to cough and produce large amounts of mucus for several weeks. Since people who get chronic bronchitis are often smokers, the cough is usually dismissed as only "smoker's cough."
As time goes on, colds become more damaging. Coughing and bringing up phlegm last longer after each cold. Without realizing it, you may begin to take this coughing and mucus production as a matter of course, all year long. Generally, the cough is worse in the morning and in damp, cold weather. You may cough up an ounce or more of yellow mucus each day.
In 2009, it was estimated that 9.9 million Americans reported a physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. A person with chronic bronchitis also may develop emphysema. These two conditions together are commonly referred to as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
Coccidioidomycosis (cocci) is an infection of the lungs caused by inhaling spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. This fungus is present in the soil of the southwestern United States, California, and parts of Central and South America.
The disease is not spread from human to human. After one bout with cocci, the body develops immunity to a second infection.
- Compromised Skin Grafts and Flaps
COPD, also known as emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a very serious disease, and the third leading cause of death in the United States. The good news is that COPD is often preventable and treatable.
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP)
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a rare lung condition in which the small airways (bronchioles) and air exchange sac (alveoli) become inflamed with connective tissue. This is an uncommon illness occurring in one study in 6 out of 100, 000 hospitalizations. It usually starts with a flu-like illness associated with fever, malaise, fatigue and cough. The cough may be persistent and troubling. There is shortness of breath with exertion and weight loss occurs in about half of patients.
This condition is a form of interstitial [within the fine supporting tissue of the lung] pneumonia of unknown origin. Very similar interstitial pneumonias can be seen in association with connective tissue diseases such as lupus erythematosis, several drug exposures and malignancies.
The physician examination is typical of other interstitial pneumonias but the chest x-ray and chest CT scan are distinctive and should lead an experienced lung specialist to suspect the diagnosis. However these findings are not definitive and a lung biopsy is recommended for confirmation. Pulmonary function tests are nonspecific.
The course of the disease is variable however it tends to be persistent and not self-limited.
Current therapy involves relatively high doses of corticosteroids [e.g. prednisone] for several months depending upon the response. Other immunosuppressive drugs [e.g. cyclophosphamide] may also be used. Treatment usually but not always results in significant improvement. However recurrences are common and patients should be periodically monitored with chest radiography, especially in the first year after treatment.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to form in the lungs, pancreas and other organs. In the lungs, this mucus blocks the airways, causing lung damage and making it hard to breathe. In the pancreas, it clogs the pathways leading to the digestive system, interfering with proper digestion.
Cystic fibrosis is the second most common inherited disorder occurring in childhood in the United States, behind sickle cell anemia. More than 10 million Americans carry the defective cystic fibrosis gene without knowing it.
Approximately 30,000 people in the United States have CF. About 1,000 new cases of cystic fibrosis are diagnosed each year.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is an illness that causes sugar levels in your blood to be high. Another word for blood sugar is glucose. Most of what you eat is changed into glucose during digestion. All the cells in your body need glucose to give you energy!
Your body makes a hormone called insulin. Insulin works to keep your blood glucose in the normal range by helping it move from your blood into your cells.
When you have diabetes,
• your body does not make insulin, or
• it does not make enough insulin, or
• the insulin your body makes does not work right
- Diabetic Ulcers
Emphysema is a lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. Emphysema, along with chronic bronchitis, together are referred to as Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, or COPD. Right now COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The good news is that COPD is often preventable and treatable.
The more you can learn about emphysema, the better you and your loved ones can manage living with this disease, making the most of every day, and maintaining the quality of life that is important to you.
There are many resources available to people living with COPD and their loved ones. We have information and tools created by the American Lung Association for your use. And there are resources provided by partners of the American Lung Association. Be sure to check out the other areas of our COPD section.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease that comes from contact with infected rodents or their urine, droppings or saliva. HPS first appeared as a "mystery" illness in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico) in the spring of 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States.. About three-quarters of people with HPS have lived in rural areas.
The HPS infection cannot be transmitted from one person to another. Transmission can occur in any location infested by infected rodents, especially rats and mice.
- Heart Attack
- Heart Disease
- High Blood Pressure
Histoplasmosis is a lung infection caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus. This fungus, called Histoplasma capsulatum, is common in most of the central and eastern United States. The fungus grows in soil, as well as bird and bat droppings, and is spread by breathing in the spores of disturbed soil.
Occupations and hobbies that carry risks for exposure to the fungus include:
- Bridge inspector or painter
- Chimney cleaner
- Construction worker
- Demolition worker
- Heating and air-conditioning system installer or service person
- Microbiology laboratory worker
- Pest control worker
- Restorer of historic or abandoned buildings
- Spelunker (cave explorer)
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is member of a family of viruses and was first recognized in 2001 in the Netherlands, but it most likely has been causing respiratory illnesses for at least 50 years worldwide. Human metapneumovirus can cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections in people of all ages. Upper respiratory tract infections include colds, while lower respiratory tract infections include pneumonia or bronchitis. Respiratory illnesses from hMPV most often occur in young children or older adults.
The virus is most likely to spread by direct or close contact with the respiratory secretions (through sneezing and coughing) of people infected with the virus or by contact with objects and surfaces that have the virus on them.
It is believed most people who develop illness will do so three to five days after being exposed to the virus.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a disease in which your lungs become inflamed when you breathe in certain dusts to which you are allergic. These dusts contain fungus spores from moldy hay or the droppings of birds.
When you inhale this dust the first time, you won't notice any problem. But after repeated or intense exposure to the dust some people may develop symptoms. The tiny air sacs in the lung become inflamed, their walls fill with white blood cells, and sometimes the sacs fill with fluid. The disease may flare up again because of more exposure to the dusts. Parts of the lung may develop scar tissue and can no longer function normally in breathing.
- Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Influenza (flu), also referred to as seasonal flu, is a highly contagious illness caused by the influenza virus. Anyone can get the flu as it is spread easily from person to person, usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus may belong to one of three different influenza virus families: A, B or C.
Influenza type A viruses can infect people, as well as birds, pigs, horses, and other animals. Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into different strains. There are two subtypes of influenza A viruses found in and circulating among humans: regular H1N1 and H3N2. These two subtypes are included in the seasonal flu vaccine each year.
Influenza Type B viruses are usually found only in humans. Influenza B viruses can cause illness among humans, but in general are associated with less severe contagious disease than influenza A viruses.
Influenza Type C viruses cause mild illness in humans. Influenza C cases occur much less frequently than A and B and are not typically included in the seasonal flu vaccine.
In addition to seasonal flu, there are two other flu viruses receiving extra attention around the globe today:
Influenza Virus (H1N1)
This new flu virus, also known as swine flu, is a subtype of influenza Type A. It has been spreading quickly around the world. It causes illness similar to seasonal flu.
Avian Flu (H5N1)
Avian influenza, or bird flu, is also a subtype of influenza Type A viruses. While highly contagious in birds, it does not usually infect humans. Several cases of human infection with bird flu viruses have occurred since 1997, primarily in Asia, parts of Europe, the Near East and Africa. The death rate for these reported cases has been greater than 50 percent. The virus is mainly transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected live, sick or dead poultry. However, it is thought that a few cases of human-to-human spread have occurred.
Insomnia is defined as the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of one or more of the following: - difficulty falling asleep - waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep - waking up too early in the morning - non-refreshing sleep The Institute of Medicine estimates that between 50 and 70 million Americans have chronic sleep problems. It is classified as: - transient (short term) - lasting from a single night to a few weeks - intermittent (on and off) - episodes occur from time to time - chronic (constant) - occurs on most nights and lasts a month or more
interstitial lung diseases
Interstitial lung disease, or ILD, is a common term that includes 130 to 200 chronic lung disorders, which may be:
- nonmalignant (non-cancerous)
Interstitial lung diseases may also be called interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary fibrosis.The symptoms and course of these diseases may vary from person to person, but the common link between the many forms of ILD is that they all begin with an inflammation.
- bronchiolitis - inflammation that involves the bronchioles (small airways)
- alveolitis - inflammation that involves the alveoli (air sacs)
- vasculitis - inflammation that involves the small blood vessels (capillaries)
Most interstitial lung diseases are diagnosed as pneumoconiosis, a drug-induced disease, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The other types are:
- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- bronchiolitis obliterans
- histiocytosis X
- chronic eosinophilic pneumonia
- collagen vascular disease
- granulomatous vasculitis
- Goodpasture's syndrome
- pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
- interstitial lung diseases
Lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder believed to be congenital (something that people are born with) and can affect any of the body's systems except the central nervous system (including the brain). It is a disease of the lymphatic system, which is a network that is linked throughout all areas of the body except the central nervous system.
Mesothelioma is a form of cancer. It involves the cells that line the lungs, abdominal organs and heart; that lining is called the mesothelium. In the most common form of mesothelioma, malignant tumors grow on the sac that lines the chest cavity and protects the lungs—the pleura. This is known as pleural mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is uncommon. About 2,000-3,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the U.S.
- Morbid Obesity
- Myocardial Infarction
What is narcolepsy?
Narcolepsy is a chronic, neurological sleep disorder with no known cause. It involves the body's central nervous system. Narcolepsy is a genetic disorder, but what causes narcolepsy is not yet known.
The main characteristic of narcolepsy is excessive and overwhelming daytime sleepiness, even after adequate nighttime sleep. A person with narcolepsy is likely to become drowsy or to fall asleep at inappropriate times and places, and sleep attacks may occur with or without warning.
Attacks can occur repeatedly in a single day, drowsiness may persist for prolonged periods of time, and nighttime sleep may be fragmented with frequent awakenings.
Nontuberculous mycobacterium infections are caused by mycobacteria that are found in water and soil. These germs usually do not make people sick. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are part of the broader family of bacteria that includes the germ that causes tuberculosis.
Doctors do not know why nontuberculous mycobacteria infect some people. They believe that people who get these infections already have some lung damage, an underlying illness, or a problem with their immune systems.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria infections are not contagious. They are not spread person-to-person.
The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria has increased, but the reasons are not known.
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height.
Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might tip the balance include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods and not being physically active.
Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis and some cancers. If you are obese, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases.
Occupational Lung Diseases
What are occupational lung diseases?
Repeated and long-term exposure to certain irritants on the job can lead to an array of lung diseases that may have lasting effects, even after exposure ceases. Certain occupations, because of the nature of their location, work, and environment, are more at risk for occupational lung diseases than others. Contrary to a popular misconception, coal miners are not the only ones at risk for occupational lung diseases. For instance, working in a car garage or textile factory can expose a person to hazardous chemicals, dusts, and fibers that may lead to a lifetime of lung problems if not properly diagnosed and treated.
Consider these statistics from the American Lung Association:
- In the U.S., occupational lung diseases are the number one cause of work-related illness in terms of frequency, severity, and preventability.
- Most occupational lung diseases are caused by repeated, long-term exposure, but even a severe, single exposure to a hazardous agent can damage the lungs.
- Occupational lung diseases are preventable.
- Smoking can increase both the severity of an occupational lung disease and the risk of lung cancer.
Pertussis—called whopping cough—is a respiratory illness caused by bacteria. It is very contagious and is most dangerous for infants and young children. Anyone can get pertussis, but most people in the U.S. are immunized before entering school and receive a booster vaccine during adolescence to prevent them from getting the disease. Most cases in the U.S. now are in adolescents and adults.
The infection may start out like a common cold—with mild fever and a runny nose—but symptoms get severe after a couple of weeks. People with pertussis get violent coughing fits that last several minutes and typically end with a high-pitched "whoop" sound as they try to take a breath. During the coughing fits, you may have difficulty breathing, you may vomit or choke, and your lips and nails may turn blue from lack of oxygen. You may even lose consciousness briefly.
Pertussis usually lasts for six weeks. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics if the illness is diagnosed early in the course of the illness. Cough syrups and drops will not work on pertussis. They will not make your symptoms improve or shorten the length of the illness.
Pneumoconiosis, also known as Black Lung Disease, is an occupational lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust. There are two types of pneumoconiosis— simple, known as coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and complicated, known as progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Pneumoconiosis is a type of interstitial lung disease. In this type of disease: the lung is damaged (in this case, by coal dust); the walls of the air sacs are inflamed; and the lung stiffens from scarring of the tissue between the air sacs.
There is no known treatment for pneumoconiosis, but doctors treat the symptoms and complications of the disease.
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of your lungs. Many small germs, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia is not a single disease. It can have more than 30 different causes. Understanding the cause of pneumonia is important because pneumonia treatment depends on its cause.
Approximately one-third of the pneumonia cases in the United States each year are caused by respiratory viruses. These viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years.
The flu virus is the most common cause of viral pneumonia in adults. Other viruses that cause pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and more.
- Postpartum Depression
- Pressure Ulcers
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
What causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia?
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare birth defect. The cilia in patients with PCD malfunction. Cilia are the tiny hair-like structures whose job it is to move mucus out of respiratory passages. When cilia don't work correctly, the mucus gets trapped and blocks your respiratory tract.
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH)
What is Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH)?
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and its cause is unknown. These arteries carry blood from your heart to your lungs to pick up oxygen.
The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland in the male reproductive system that wraps around the urethra and produces seminal fluid. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in this gland grow out of control.
Symptoms rarely present themselves in the early stages of prostate cancer. You might consider prostate cancer screening if you are older than 60 or have a family history of prostate cancer. You should discuss the benefits and risks of screening with your doctor.
The Portneuf Urology Clinic can test and diagnose prostate cancer
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)
PAH is a disease in which the pressure in a patient's pulmonary arteries becomes dangerously high. Pulmonary arteries carry blood that has returned from the body to the lungs, where the blood receives a fresh supply of oxygen. That high blood pressure puts a strain on the heart. PAH is one of five types of pulmonary hypertension (PH). PAH worsens over time and is life-threatening. It is a relatively rare disease, affecting 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 1 million people.
There are several types of PAH:
Idiopathic (IPAH)—PAH in which the cause is unknown
Familial (FPAH)—PAH that runs in families and often is linked to a genetic defect
Associated (APAH)—the most common type of PAH, which is caused by or occurs at the same time as other medical conditions, including:
- Collagen vascular disease (or connective tissue disease)--includes autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma or lupus; in autoimmune diseases, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells and tissues
- Congenital heart and lung disease—heart/lung diseases that develop at or before birth
- Portal hypertension—a condition usually resulting from liver disease
- HIV infection
- Drugs—including appetite suppressants, particularly fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine; cocaine or amphetamines; other drugs
- Other conditions: thyroid disorders, glycogen storage disease (genetic defect in forming or releasing sugars necessary for the body to function), Gaucher disease (an inherited metabolic disorder), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (abnormally formed blood vessels resulting in excessive bleeding), hemoglobinopathies (abnormally formed oxygen carrying protein in the red blood cells, caused by a genetic defect), myeloproliferative disorders (overproduction of red or white blood cells) and splenectomy (removal of the spleen)
Associated with significant venous or capillary involvement—PAH occurring at the same time as abnormal narrowing in the pulmonary veins and/or capillaries and may or may not include arteries; conditions include:
- Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD): a disease resulting in blockage of the veins in the lungs
- Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: small blood vessels in the lungs grow too much and become tangled, resulting in poor blood flow
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn—PAH in newborn's when the heart and blood vessels do not adapt to breathing outside the womb.
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel elsewhere in the body (most commonly from the leg), travels to an artery in the lung, and forms an occlusion (blockage) of the artery.
A blood clot (thrombus) that forms in a blood vessel in one area of the body, breaks off, and travels to another area of the body through the bloodstream is called an embolus. An embolus can lodge itself in a blood vessel, blocking the blood supply to a particular organ. This blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus is called an embolism.
An embolism to the lung may cause serious life-threatening consequences and, potentially, death. Most commonly, a PE is the result of a condition called deep vein thrombosis (blood clot in the deep veins of the leg).
The circulatory system
The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins make up the body's circulatory system. Blood is pumped with great force from the heart into the arteries, then into the capillaries (small blood vessels in the tissues) and returns to the heart through the veins. Much of the force of the heartbeat is lost when the blood enters the veins and results in the slowing down of the blood flow through the veins back to the heart. Under certain conditions, decreased blood flow may contribute to clot formation.
Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease marked by scarring of the tissue inside and between the air sacs in the lungs. When the scar forms, the tissue becomes stiff and thicker. This makes it harder for oxygen to pass through the walls of the air sac into the bloodstream. Once the lung tissue becomes scarred, the damage cannot be reversed.
Pulmonary fibrosis is one of a family of related diseases called interstitial lung diseases. All of these diseases can result in lung scarring.
Pulmonary Vascular Disease
Pulmonary vascular disease is a category of disorders. All affect the blood circulation in the lungs. They include:
- pulmonary embolism
- chronic thromboembolic disease
- pulmonary arterial hypertension
- pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
- arteriovenous malformations
- pulmonary edema
REM Sleep Disorder
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) that involves abnormal behaviour during the sleep phase with rapid eye movement (REM sleep). It was first described in 1986.
The major and arguably only abnormal feature of RBD is loss of muscle atonia (paralysis) during otherwise intact REM sleep. This is the stage of sleep in which most vivid dreaming occurs. The loss of motor inhibition leads to a wide spectrum of behavioural release during sleep. This extends from simple limb twitches to more complex integrated movement, in which sufferers appear to be unconsciously acting out their dreams. These behaviours can be violent in nature and in some cases will result in injury to either the patient or their bed partner.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a very contagious virus and the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children younger than age 1 in the U.S. Almost all children are infected with the virus by their second birthday, but only a small percentage of children develop severe illness.
Restless Leg Syndrom (RLS)
What is restless legs syndrome (RLS)?
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep disorder in which a person experiences unpleasant sensations in the legs, which are described as:
These sensations usually occur in the calf area, but may be felt anywhere from the thigh to the ankle. One or both legs may be affected. For some people, the sensations are also felt in the arms. People with RLS have an irresistible urge to move the affected limb when the sensations occur.
Some patients, however, have no definite sensation, except for the need to move. Sleep problems are common with RLS because of the difficulty it causes in getting to sleep.
- REM Sleep Disorder
Sarcoidosis is a disease caused by inflammation. Scientists believe sarcoidosis is an immune system disease brought on by a failure of the body's natural defense system. It is not contagious.
Sarcoidosis can attack any part of the body—inside or out—but 90 percent of the cases affect the lungs. When sarcoidosis appears in the lungs it is called pulmonary sarcoidosis.
Sarcoidosis appears as small patches of inflamed cells. It can cause different symptoms depending on where it appears. On the skin, it may look like a scaly rash or red bumps. In the eyes, it can cause soreness. If it affects muscles, it can cause swelling and soreness. In the lungs, it can cause a dry cough, mild chest pain, or shortness of breath.
How Serious Is Sarcoidosis?
Nobody can predict how sarcoidosis will affect one person verses another. It is not serious in over half the cases. The disease appears briefly and heals naturally, without treatment. Some people don't even realize they have sarcoidosis. However, another 20-30 percent of people with pulmonary sarcoidosis end up with permanent lung damage. A small percentage of patients may have chronic sarcoidosis, lasting for many years.
Who Gets Sarcoidosis?
Anyone can get sarcoidosis. It is most common among African Americans and northern European whites, especially Scandinavians. In the U.S., African Americans have a much higher percentage of sarcoidosis than whites, and it is usually much more serious in African Americans.Sarcoidosis usually affects young adults—people between 20 and 40—but it can affect people older than 60. It is somewhat more common among women than men.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
SARS is caused by a group of viruses called the coronaviruses. It was first identified during an outbreak in Asia in 2003.
How is SARS Spread?
Scientists believe the main way that SARS spreads is by close person-to-person contact, when someone infected with SARS coughs or sneezes. "Close contact" is:
- having cared for or lived with someone with SARS
- Having a high likelihood of direct contact with coughs, sneezes and/or body fluids of someone known to have SARS. For example: kissing or embracing, sharing eating or drinking utensils, talking to someone within 3 feet, physical examination, and any other direct physical contact between people.
Close contact does not include activities such as walking by a person or briefly sitting across from someone in a waiting room or office.
The virus also can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets (from a cough or a sneeze) and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eye(s). Scientists suspect that the virus also might spread more broadly through the air or by other ways that are currently not known.
Silicosis is a chronic lung disease caused by breathing in tiny bits of silica dust. Silica is the second most common mineral in the earth's crust. It is a major component of sand, rock, and mineral ores like quartz. People who work in jobs where they can be breathing in these tiny silica bits—like sandblasting, mining, construction and many others—are at risk for silicosis. When people breathe silica dust, they inhale tiny particles of silica that has crystallized. This silica dust can cause fluid buildup and scar tissue in the lungs that cuts down your ability to breathe.
There are three types of silicosis:
- Chronic silicosis, the most common type of silicosis, usually occurs after 10 or more years of exposure to crystalline silica at low levels.
- Accelerated silicosis occurs 5 to 10 years after exposure and is caused by exposure to higher levels of crystalline silica.
- Acute silicosis can occur after only weeks or months of exposure to very high levels of crystalline silica. Acute silicosis progresses rapidly and can be fatal within months.
What is Sleep Apnea?
Sleep apnea is a very common disorder that causes you to stop breathing while you sleep—from a few seconds to minutes. These breathing pauses often occur 5 to 30 times or more per hour. Normal breathing usually starts again, sometimes with a snort or choking sound. If you have sleep apnea, it disrupts your sleep at least three nights a week. You sleep poorly, so you are tired during the day—sometimes so tired that you can't concentrate, work, or drive.
There are three types of sleep apnea—obstructive, central, and complex. Obstructive is the most common form of sleep apnea.
Obstructive sleep apnea most often happens when your airway has collapsed or is blocked during sleep. This causes shallow breathing or breathing pauses. When you try to breathe, you might snore loudly from air that squeezes past the blockage.
Central sleep apnea happens when the part of your brain that controls breathing doesn't send correct signals. This means you make no effort to breathe for brief periods of time.
Complex sleep apnea is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apnea.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant, usually between the ages of one and six months. SIDS is also called "crib death".
- Suicidal Behavior / Threats
- Surgical Wounds
- Traumatic Wounds
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually attacks the lungs, but can attack almost any part of the body. Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through the air. When a person with TB in their lungs or throat coughs, laughs, sneezes, sings, or even talks, the germs that cause TB may spread through the air. If another person breathes in these germs there is a chance that they will become infected with tuberculosis.
It is important to understand that there is a difference between being infected with TB and having TB disease. Someone who is infected with TB has the TB germs, or bacteria, in their body. The body's immune system is protecting them from the germs and they are not sick. This is referred to as latent TB.
Someone with TB disease is sick and can spread the disease to other people. A person with TB disease needs to see a doctor as soon as possible. This is referred to as active TB.
What is Multi-drug Resistant TB?
Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a very dangerous form of tuberculosis. Some TB germs become resistant to the effects of some TB drugs. This happens when TB disease is not properly treated. These resistant germs can then cause TB disease. The TB disease they cause is much harder to treat because the drugs do not kill the germs.
MDR-TB can be spread to others, just like regular TB. If you have TB, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions for taking your TB medicine so that you will not develop MDR-TB.
Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is a blockage in the area that connects the renal pelvis (part of the kidney) to one of the tubes (ureters) that move urine to the bladder.
UPJ obstruction is usually a congenital condition (present from birth). Most are diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound screening.
- Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
- UPJ Obstruction